The JDK provides a few implementations of the map interface such as HashMap, LinkedHashMap, TreeMap and the IdentityMap. Which implementation should you use ? The answers depends on what your requirement is.
The HashMap is implemented using a hash table. Hash tables are implemented using a hash function to calculate the index into an array where the value is placed. Hence HashMap provides the fastest search and insertion times O(1). HashMaps however take up more memory. Also they do not guarantee any ordering for the keys. If you iterate over the keys, you will find them in no particular order.
The LinkedHashMap is implemented using both hash table and linked list. In addition to using a hash table for fast retrieval, it maintains a doubly linked list through the items. The linked list helps preserve the order in which keys were inserted into the map. Search or get operation is still as fast as an HashMap, but inserts or deletes are a little slower because of the additional work involved in maintaining the linked list. LinkedHashMap can be used if you are going to need to iterate over the keys in say the order in which the keys were inserted into the Map. LinkedHashMap also has a constructor parameter accessorder, which when set to true, changes the ordering from insertion order to access order - from least recently accessed to most recently accessed. This is particularly useful if you are using the Map to build a cache.
TreeMap is implemented using the red black tree which is a balanced tree. When items are inserted into a tree, they are placed at a position based on their natural ordering or based on a provided comparator. The ordering is thus a sorted order. Search and insertion for TreeMap are of the order O(log(n)). This is slower than HashMap and LinkedHashMap. You might need to use a TreeMap if you are going to need to iterate over the keys in the map in a sorted order.
IdentityHashMap is implemented using hash table and is very fast - O(1) for both get and insert. But unlike other Map classes which use the equals method when comparing keys, it just uses object reference equality. For 2 keys key1 and key2, it will compare using key1 == key2 rather than key1.equals(key2). The JDK is clear that this is not be to used as general purpose Map where you need lookups based on values. The specification of the containsKey(object key) in the Map interface states that it returns true if key.equals(k). This is not true for the IdentityHashMap. IdentityHashMap is rarely used. But you might use it if you are doing something that needs keeping track of object references.
- HashMap is the fastest map with O(1) search and insertion times.
- LinkedHashMap is a little slower for inserts, but maintains the insertion order.
- TreeMap is the slowest map, but lets you iterate over the keys in a sorted order.